Saturday, 2 July 2011

Classification of Computers

Classification of Computers

Digital computers on the basic of physical size, cost and word size have been categorized into the following four classes.
  1. Mainframe Computers,
  2. Mini Computers,
  3. Mico Computers,
  4. Super Computers.

1.   Main frame Computes:
            Mainframe Computers are large Computers that accommodates a large room. These are power Computers which are equipped with hundreds of processors that’s why, they have very fast processing speed with a word size of 64-bits. Their memory is gagabytes and has a speed of 15 neno-seconds per instruction.
            Mainframes are expensive Computer, which are designed to support 100 to 150 terminals with the services of time sharing, multiprogramming and virtual memory.
            Mainframe Computers are normally used in hug businesses, Universities, Banks, Scientific Laboraties National & International markets.
EXAMPLES: IBM 4381, ICL 2900, NEC 610 etc.

2.   Mini Computers:
            As Compared to Mainframes, Mini Computers are smaller in size, speed, memory and weaker in performance. These are equipped with several processors and thus can support upto 20 terminals. They use a bus line of 32-bits and can access data in 75 neno-seconds. Basically Mini systems were used for Networking. Besides that, these computers are commonly used at research Institutions, Airports, Colleges and Business Institutions successfully.

3.   Micro-Computers:
            Micro-Computers are also called personal Computers or simply (PC). These are the smallest Computers that we see around. They can be commonly seen at homes, offices, Educational Institutions, small business and designing agencies, where they are used for data processing activities. These Computers are cheap and easily available at market.
            Micro-Computer are portable Computers are and they can be placed from one place to another with easy. They are available in Desktop, Towers, Laptops, Palmtops or even in PDF version.
            They Computers are highly flexible and the success of their market and size is the Mico-processor, a Silicon chip containing all the circuitry to perform arithmetic/logic operations and 1/0 operations.

4.   Super Computers:
            Super Computers are the most powerful of Computers available today. These Computer are very difficult to design and requires complex circutory and development research. That’s why these are very expensive and their sale potential is only 30-50 machines per year.
            These Computer solve scientific problems and Calculations and thus called “Number Crunchers”. They can Calculate 400 million instructions per second which are accurate upto 14 decimal places.
            As these machines are designed to solve scientic and engineering problems, therefore a special language “FORTRAN” is used with them and thus sthey are also called FORTRAN ENGINES.
            Super Computers, on the basis of its power and versatility, are used in Neuclear research laboratories, Weather fore costing, Weapon designing and Oil exploration.
For Example: Cray-1 and Cyber 205.


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